About the Administrative-political Statuses of the City of Erevan and its Environs From the Very Beginning up until Modern Days
Government Researcher and Expert of the Armenian Question
Short Briefing about the Political Fate of the City of Erevan and Its Environs through Questions and Answers
Question 1. Where is the modern Erevan emplaced in Historical Armenia?
Answer 1. The toponymic varieties of the capital of the modern Republic of Armenia, Erevan, Эривань, Ēřivan, Irphuini, Ērebuni, Eriani, Ayrivan, Erivan, Ervandavan, Ērevan, Ēreun, Ērivan, Iravan, Irvan, Řevan, Řivan have a historical origin of various periods. It is located in the 16th region of Kotayk‘, which is the 15th province of historical Mets Hayk (Armenia Major) that extends over the border of Ararat Valley, covering the banks of Hrazdan River, at the elevation of 900-1200 meters above sea level. Erevan’s relief is divided into 2 parts. The first part faces towards the northwest and extends over the mountain terrain and has a relatively chilly climate, and the other part on the southwest has a low-lying area and hot climate.
Erevan lies in the province of Ayrarat, which is the Middle World (central territory), and the heart of political and civilized life. Strabo, an antique geographic historiographer (64 or 63 BC-c. AD 24), called this area ‘Araks Valley’ or ‘Araks Field’, which he designated as a prolific plane. Armenian historian Leo (1860-1932) describing the cantons of the province of Ayrarat of Mets Hayk, wrote: ‘Kotayk‘, today renamed Ghrkhbulakh, Erevan. Historical places [are] Sklaberd (now Alap‘ars), Artsni, Aramons, Oghjaberd, Dzag, Elar, Avan, K‘anak‘er. Erevan, a famous historical city. The old etymology explained these names in the word երևալ (to see), and tied it with a myth of Noah, when he came out from the ark, [he] saw the land, and said ‘I saw.’ Whereas the cuneiform inscriptions mention Eriayin as a variety of this name.’Academician S. T. Eremyan also reflects upon the province of Kotayk‘, where Erevan has been located: ‘Province of Kotayk‘-[segment] B6-the 16th region of the province of Ayrarat. Kotayk‘ is the only province, which retained its status as a region. Today the region of Kotayk‘ encompasses almost the same territory, about 860 sq. km.’
Leo, describing the lands of Urartu (Ararat), mentioned: ‘… the Land of Erian (Erevan) was located in the lower valley of Hrazdan (Zangu) River, the Land Uluani was [situated in] in the middle valley with the city of Daran (Ēlar)…’ Russian scholar, Nikolski believed that the toponym of old Urartian (Araratean) Erian (Erevan) not only showed the location of an integral part of Arax Valley but perhaps, it was the toponymic name of Arax itself.
Question 2. When was Erevan established, and what sources do supply details about it?
Answer 2. In 1963, Eremyan stated: ‘Erevan-fortress-[segment] B6 was established in the reign of Urartian King, Argishti I in 782 BC (786-764 BC), and now it is the capital of Soviet Armenia.’ Urartian (Ararat) King I commissioned the cuniform inscription about the fortress of Erevan (Irpiuni), in 782 BC: ‘… по велению бога Халди Аргишты, сын Менуа, говорит: город Ирпиуни я построил для могушества страны Биайнили (и) для усмирения (?) вражской страны.Земля была пустинной (?) (и) ничего не было там (раньше) построено. Могучие дела я там совершил. 6 (?) тысяч 600 войнов стран Хате (и) Цупани я там поселил.’
‘… As God commanded, Khaldi Argishti, a son of Menua, said: ‘I founded the city of Eripuni for the power of Bianili (and) to subject (?) the hostile counties. The land was deserted (?), (and) nothing was built there (before). I did powerful deeds there. I reinstalled 6600 soldiers there from lands of Khat‘e (and) Tsopane.’ Another inscription of the same content that belongs to Argishti I is found in 1950 embedded in the wall of the fortress of Erebuni that elevates from the small mountain of Arin-Berd with lofty walls which are located in the districts of New Aresh and Vardashen. It reads: “Argishti, son of Menua, with the greatness of God Khaldi. [I] built this sumptuous fortress by the power of Bianili, and called Erebuni, to scare enemies. Argishti said that the land was deserted, I did here great works. Argishti, the son of Menua, possessing the greatness of Khaldi, is a powerful king, King of Bianili, the governor of the city of Tushpa.’
The cuneiform inscription we presently discuss, in fact, is the birth certificate of Irpiuni-Erebuni-Erevan. The 2750 anniversary of the foundation of Erevan was publicly paraded in Armenia and the former USSR in 1968. In the past century, the archaeologists uncovered some traces of a few strongholds at the environs of Shengavit‘, Noragavit‘, Tsitsernakaberd, Arin-Berd, and Karmir Blur (Red Hill) that are traceable to the Urartian (Ararat) Era. Of them, the most celebrated was the fortress of Teyshebaini that was established on the Karmir Blur, where the archeologists unearthed various types of vessels, household stuff, weapons, crops, ornate sculptures. The surviving artifacts of Teyshebaini and other strongholds that are excavated in Erevan and its environ show that Erevan established the relations of the most important military-political and economic intersection pertain to Urartian (Ararat) Era.
According to Strabo, ‘[Among the valleys of Armenia], some are fertile moderately and others extremely: for example, the Araksen valley…’ Thus, Arax Valley had favorable conditions for strengthening those relations, as noted above. Erevan and its environs reached high-level growth of agriculture, viticulture, winemaking, water canal system, and agricultural water irrigation system.
Even today, the traces of the ancient water irrigation works are spotted in the friendly areas of the city of Erevan. The wide lowlands of Erevan and Etchmiadzin were irrigated from the waters of the Hrazdan (Zangu) River. Two tunnels are carved into basalt high rocks that are located on the right-hand banks of the Hrazdan River. The waterways share the water with the river that travels through the tunnels to irrigate the gardens of Erevan (Dalma Gardens) in the upper part, and the territories between Erevan and Etchmiadzin in the lower part. According to the inscription that was commissioned by Urartian (Ararat) King, Rusa II (685-675 BC), he brought the water from Ildaruni (Zangu-Hrazdan) River through a canal and irrigated the gardens. The inscription engraved on the rock, which lies at the head of the waterway that used to run off the water through the Sardarapat Valley, provides information about the waterways that were removed from Arax. In the Urartian (Ararat) Era (9th-6th centuries BC), Erevan was transformed into a unit of joint military fortifications, where the fortress of Erebuni and that of Teyshebaini, which replaced the former one, played a significant role. Erevan inherited its name from the history of the foundation of the fortress of Erebuni.
Question 3. What the city of Erevan did experience after the fall of the Urartian (Ararat) state until the year 1440 when it became the central city of Eastern Armenia (Ararat Land)?
Answer 3. The province of Ayrarat of Historical Armenia (Ararat Valley or Arax Valley or Arax Field), also stretches over a territory of the capitals of Armenia. Apart from Tushpa (Van, the capital of Vaspurakan), Tigranakert (Aghdznik‘, 1st century BC), P‘ok‘r Hayk (Armenia Minor), Tsop‘k‘, the capitals of Armenian principalities of Cilicia and Mets Hayk that were established in various periods, all other capitals of Armenia, Armavir, Ervandashat, Artashat, Vagharshpat, Dvin, Bagaran, Erazgavors, Kars, Ani, and Erevan, were founded at the heart of the country, Ayrarat.
Erevan, which was located in the central part of Ayrarat, is undoubtedly the holder of the Armenian states, history of the aspirations and struggles of the Armenian people that lasted over centuries, consistently was in support of our capitals in the geographical, political, and spiritual-cultural realm. Erevan has always been at the center of the transport communications or near them. The cities, Armavir, Artashat, Dvin, and Ani lie in the neighborhood of Erevan. In the Urartian Era, the important meeting point of the routes in Ayrarat was Argishtikhinili (Armavir), which was re-located at the mouth of the Akhuryan River on the site of Ervandashat, which was then ceded to Artashat.
Vagharshapat and Dvin (451) were re-established in the territory of Artashat. 5 main roads of Armenia started from Dvin that are represented with branches below:
- Dvin, Karin, Shapin, Garahisar, Amasia, and Byzantium.
- Dvin, Khlat‘, K‘ghimar, Urha and Damaskos.
- Dvin, Yerevan, Hrazdan River, a town of Kot‘ (on the shore of Lake Sevan), Mountain Passes of Zod, and Partav.
- Dvin, Nakhijevan and Tabriz.
- Dvin, Erevan, Hrazdan River, K‘ur River and Tp‘ghis River.
And the central road that comes from Tabriz passes through Nakhijevan, Dvin, Erevan, and Hrazdan River; one of its roads runs down from Mountain Passes of Zod passing through Partav, and the other one links K‘ur River and other places of Transcaucasia.
Erevan was in the turmoil of the most important historical events of the country when Christianity was declared a state religion in Armenia in 301, which was chronologically followed by the invention of the Armenian letters at the beginning of the fifth century. Abraham I of Aghbat‘an, Catholicos of All Armenians in 607-615, summoned the National Council of Dvin in 607, where the question of Erevan was discussed. Three sons of K‘chik, an outstanding prince from the princely House of Bagratuni Dynasty of the fifth century, Smbat Bagratuni, marzipan of Vrkan of Persia or Gurkan, locum tenenes of Catholicos of All Armenians, Vrt‘anes K‘ert‘ogh, vardapet of the Armenian Sharsaghar, and Giga Dashtakaran, another famous military, participated in that synod.
Other bishops of an elite regiment, princely House of Bagratuni, House of Khorkhoruni, House of Apahuneri, and House of Vanand were present in that synod as well. Abraham of St. Kat‘oghike, Samuel of St. Hrip‘sime, Babulas of St. Hovhannes, Khosrov of Oshakan, Havityan of Aghivard, Davit‘ of Erevan, Ismayel of Garni, Hovhannes of Avan, Israel of Ptghavan, Јojik of Yerevan, Yohanik Artavazd of Aparan, Abas, Ordyak, and Abraham of P‘arpi, Mikael of Aghts‘i, Giorgis of Archo, Kozmas of Urda, Mayen of other Archo, Yohanik of Artsap‘ats‘, and bishops (priests) of other monasteries of Samot of Bagaran, took part in the synod as well. Abraham I of Aghbat‘an was elected as a Catholicos of All Armenians in 607-615. The synod demonstrated its commitment and devotion to the doctrine, which the Armenian Apostolic Church adopted and then condemned Chalcedonianism. Erevan is also mentioned in the accounts on Arabic campaigns that were initiated at the beginning of the 640s. The Arabs seized the inaccessible fortress of Erevan, but they failed to capture it.
In the two-century reigns of Arabs (640-855), the social-economic and cultural life of Erevan alongside the whole Armenian World faded away, too. It changed in the ninth-eleventh century when Erevan and almost the total area of Ararat Valley were incorporated in the administration of the Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia. Erevan was mentioned as a ‘Big Town’ in this period. At the beginning of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, Erevan was under the jurisdiction of the House of Armenian Zak‘aryan Dynasty that governed Georgia. Until the 40s of the thirteenth and fourteenth century and fifteenth century, Erevan and the famous cities of Armenia, Dvin, Ani, Kars, and others, lost their military role and privileges, turning into ordinary settlements.
Nevertheless, in 1440, which was marked as a period of the Kara-koyunluners’ hegemony, Erevan became the center of the Ayrarat Land, the so-called central city of Eastern Armenia, or ‘the capital of Ayrarat, which had a provincial government or khanate.’
Remarkably and symbolically, after a year, in 1441, the See of the Armenian Apostolic Church was re-located from Sis, capital of Cilician Armenia, to Ayrarad Land, Mother See of Holy Etchmiadzin, after a 1000-year relocation from city to city. Erevan and Etchmiadzin could stand shoulder to shoulder to shelter the Armenian people, bringing them to our days.
Question 4. What essentially was the Erevan Khanate and how long did it last?
Answer 4. Safavid Persia established the Khanates of Erevan, Nakhijevan, Karabakh (Ganja) in Eastern Armenia that came under the jurisdiction of Persia by the Treaty of Amasia in 1555. Later on, based on the territory of Armenian Melikdoms, and the Desert of Milli that lies to the east of them, the Karabakh Khanate, which seceded from the Ganja Khanate, was established. And northern sides of Eastern Armenia, Lori, P‘ambak, Borch‘alu, were annexed to Eastern Georgia that was the wāli (viceroy) of Kartli-Kakheti, which was subservient to Persian Shah. The militarized khanate was called ‘beylerbeylik’ and enjoyed more privileged rights than the khanate. The khanate was divided into mahalletes, where the governors were appointed by the khan and were honored by the titles, Sultan, Bek, Nayir, Mirbolouk, and some others. The khan had the complete responsibilities of political, administrative, and judicial authority in khanates. In the fifteenth century, the province of the historical territory of Ayrarat was turned into a provincial khanate with the centre of Erevan.
Right after coming under the control of Persia in 1555, the Beyberbeylik of Erevan was built based on the provincial jurisdiction of Ayrarat, which was a khanate with statutory authorization. In the sixteenth century and at the first half of the seventeenth century, the Khanate of Erevan passed from hand to hand a few times as a result of the Turko-Persian wars. Nevertheless, it remained eventually under the control of Perisa until the Erevan Khanate and Nakhijevan Khanate were incorporated into the administration of the Russian Empire by the Peace Treaty (Turkmenchay; 1828).
In the eighteenth century, the Erevan Khanate became one of the most powerful beyberbeyliks of the Persian State, which incorporated Ghap‘an, Julfa, Sisian, Erevan, Kotayk‘ (Ghěrkh-bulagh), Aghstafa, Aparan, Tmanisi, Skabusi, K‘eshtaghi, Zarzibili, Skark‘eli, Sashat‘, Inje, Tabak‘-Melek‘, Ayget‘, Jilder and other nahirs, as well as Erevan, Naxijivan, Karabakh (Shushi), Ordubad, Maku, Ganja, Barkushat, Barda, Belagan, Shamk‘or, Shink‘ar, Tiflis, Јilder, Maghsaberd, and other famous cities and fortresses. After the Turko-Persian Peace Treaty was concluded in 1639, Chakatk‘ (Surmalu-Massyats‘otn), Vat‘azhnunik‘ (Darach‘ich‘ag) of Ayrarat, Nig (Aparan), Shirak (Shoragyal), Mazagh-Urts-Massyats‘otn (Garni-Vedi), Aragatsotn (Karbi), Kotayk‘ (Kěrkh-bulagh), and the province of Geghark‘uni (Geghark‘unik‘) of Synuik‘ and the province of the Sot‘k‘ (Gyogch‘andangiz) came again under the jurisdiction of Beyberbeylik of Erevan. Moreover, since the beginning of the seventeenth century, the Nakhijevan Khanate was incorporated into the Beyberbeylik of Erevan (Ch‘ukhuri-Saad).
Furthermore, the statutory authorization of the Khan of Erevan could temporarily be passed to the Nakhijevan Khanate which was under the power of the Erevan Khanate, if the Khanate of Erevan was militarized by Turks because of the Turko-Persian collision. The Beyberbeylik of Erevan changed its status into a military vassal (serdardom). The Serdar of Erevan was called ‘the Lord of Lords of Erevan’ in the edicts of Persian Shahs. The meliks of Karabakh, were, too, reliant on the Erevan’s serdar or vassal, who enacted the edicts of governance rights of meliks instead of shahs.
The Beylerbey of Erevan (serdar or vassal) was one of the most important military officials. He, as a Supreme Leader, commanded the Iranian khans of Transcaucasia in the war, whereas the Khan of Shirvan, exercised individual jurisdiction as serdar or governor of the northern oblasts of Iran. The palace of the Serdar of Erevan was as opulent as the palace of Shah, it only had lesser sizes.
At the beginning of the nineteenth century, when the Beyberbeylik of Erevan (Khanate, Serdardom, Vassal) was about to be annexed to Russia, it had the structure and administrative units (Mahalettes) that are listed below:
- Mahalette of Kěrkh-bulakh (Kotayk‘) stretched between Darach‘ich‘ak (Tsaghkadzor) and Zangibasar (now, in the Masis District). Its borders in the east extended over Aghamallan (Geghama) Mountains. Zangu (Hrazdan River) in the west, and the border in the south run close to the city of Erevan.
- The Mahalette of Zangi-basar (now Masis District) was located between the Mahalette of Kěrkh-Bulakh (Kotayk‘) and Arax River, as well as it lied between Mahalettes of Karbi-basar (Karbi water, K‘asakh River) and Garni-Basar (Garni Water, Azat River).
- The Mahalette of Garni-basar covered the area that was situated on the left-hand side of the Arax River and corresponded to the Basin of Garni River.
- The Mahalette of Vedi-basar lied on the left-hand side of Arax River, between the Mahalette of Garni-basar and the Mahalette of Sharur that covered the total territory of the Basin of Vedi River.
- To the southeast Sharur was a Mahalette of Erevan Khanate that was located in the suburb. It covered Shrur Valley and bordered upon the Mahalette of Khoks of Nakhijevan Khanate in the southeast. It was separated from the Mountains of Daragyalaz (Vayots‘ Dzor) by a branch of the mountain that extended over the Arax River.
- The Mahalette of Suramlu covered the territory that lied before Sardarabad, between the right-hand side of Arax River and Haykakan Par(Armenian Chains), known as Aghri-dagh. The northern Fold Mountains of the Haykakan Par bordered Bayazet that was under the jurisdiction of Turkey in the south.
- The Mahalette of Darak‘end-P‘arch‘en was located on the right side of Arax River, in the westward direction of Suramlu that included three basins-P‘arch‘en, Darak‘end, and P‘aranut, which was then granted a status of a military okrug.
- The Mahalette of Saot‘li occupied the territory of the confluence of Western Arp‘a and Arax River. It bordered upon the territories of the Mahalette of T‘alin and the Mahalette of Sardarapat in the east, having also frontiers with the Eyalet of Ghars that incorporated the Kaghzvan Sanjak in the west.
- The Mahalette of T‘alin stretched between Aragats and Arp‘a. It bordered upon the Mahalette of Shoragyal (Eastern Shirak) in the north. To the south, it lied closer to the frontier of the Mahalette of Sardarabad and the Mahalette of Saot‘li.
- The Mahalette of Seidl-Akhsakhli extended over the east of the Mahalette of T‘alin, on the southern and eastern slopes of Aragats, bordering upon the territory of the Mahalette of Aparan to the east. It also had frontiers with the territories of the Mahalette of Sardarabad and the Mahalette of Karbi-basar on the south and south-eastern sides.
- The Mahalette of Sardarapat was located on the left side of Arax Rover, between the Mahalettes of Saot‘li and Karbi-basar.
- The Mahalette of Karb-basar lied at the edge of the territory of the Mahalette of Seidl-Akhsakhli, covering the areas of the basin of the middle course of Karbi River and basin of the upper course of Kara-su (Black Water).
- The Mahalette of Aparan was located to the northeast side of Aragats, between Mountains Aragats and P‘ambak, bordering on Shoragyal (Eastern Shirak) in the west, and the Mahalette of Darach‘ich‘ak (Tsaghkadzor) in the east. It also included the region of the upper course of Karbi River.
- The Mahalette of Darach‘ich‘ak (Tsaghkadzor) lied between the province of P‘ambak and the Mahalette of Kěrx-bulagh (Kotayk‘). This territory also covered the region of the upper course of Hrazdan River and the Basin of Miskhana River of the Darach‘ich‘ak (Tsaghkadzor).
- Gyog-ch‘ay (Lake Sevan, Gavar, New Bayazet, Geghark‘unik‘) was the largest Mahalette of Erevan Khanate that incorporated all the regions that belong to the Basin of Lake Sevan. The Mountain Chains of Geghama (Aghmagha), Vardenis (Gyozaldara), and Sevan (Shah-dagh) were borders of Gyog-ch‘
It is to be noted that from 1555 up until 1828, the Mahalettes of Suramlu, Darak‘end-P‘arch‘en, and Sharur (later, provinces and military okrugs) were consistently annexed to Erevan Khanate (beglerbeikiks- beyberbeyliks, serdardom, vassal), for 273 years.
The Erevan Khanate was eliminated on 6 October 1827, when Ivan F. Paskevich-Yerevanski, an imperial military general, ordered to establish ‘Temporary administration’, which already initiated governmental policies of the former Erevan Khanate.
Question 5. What was ‘the Temporary administration’ that was established on October 6, 1827?
Answer 5. The Russo-Persian war ended in 1826-1828 when the Russian army captured the fortress of Erevan, a center of the Erevan Khanate, on 1 October 1827. Persia was defeated. Following it, the draft law was proposed for a conclusion of the treaty which constituted the annexation of the territories of Erevan Khanate and Nakhijevan Khanate, which were accreted into each other under the protection of Russia. Thus, the Russo-Persian Treaty was concluded at the village of Turkmenchay on 10 February 1828.
But Paskevich, a Lay Procurator of Tsar of All Rus, general and Leib guard, commander of the individual military corpus of Caucasus, established a Russian ‘Temporary administration’ in Erevan on 6 October in 1827, 5 days after the fortress of Erevan was seized by Russians. Paskevich empowered this administration with the authorizations to govern Erevan Khanate and Nakhijevan Khanate that had already had a status of former administrative divisions.
A ‘Temporary administration’ consists of 3 officials:
- Step‘an A. Krasovsky, Soviet Air Force Marshal of Aviation, Mayor general, a president of administration.
- Nerses Ashtarakets‘i, an Armenian prominent figure.
- Aleksandr P. Borodin, a lieutenant, and guard of the fortress of Erevan.
Paskevich immediately took the lead of the ‘Temporary administration’ that governed the former Khanates with all their mahalettes, we presently discuss.
In October of 1827, Tsar Nikolay I ordered to draft a governance policy to more productively control the province of Erevan, i.e. the administrative divisions of Erevan Khanate and Nakhijevan Khanate. And, in this situation, the ‘Temporary administration’ that was established on 6 October 1827, governed the province of Erevan, i.e. the former territories of Erevan Khanate and Nakhijevan Khanate, for 4 months totally, until 21 March 1828, whereas the same Tsar officially permitted to form the Armenian Oblast that was based on the integral territories of former khanates, we presently discuss. However, before it, the Russo-Persian Treaty of Turkmenchay was concluded on 10 February 1828 which constituted the annexation of the territories of Erevan Khanate and Nakhijevan Khanate, as well as a large part of the other territories of Eastern Armenia under the control of Russia.’
Question 6. According to the Treaty of Turkmenchay, what territories of Erevan Khanate were incorporated into the Russian Empire?
Answer 6. According to Article III of the Russo-Persian Treaty (Turkmenchay; 1828) Persia ‘recognizes the capitulation rights for Russian Empire’s subjects, [i.e.] Erevan Khanate, the territories on this or that sides of Arax and Nakhijevan Khanate as exclusive Russian dependencies…’ The section, ‘Erevan Khanate on this or that sides of Arax’ denotes ‘Erevan Khanate on the right and left banks of Arax.’ We have already mentioned in the Briefing (2020, Apryl 14; no. 4) that Erevan Khanate had 15 mahalettes (we have already listed them above) on the days before they came under the power of Russia in 1828. It is worth mentioning that 13 administrative divisions of 15 mahalettes of Erevan, including Mahallatte of Sharur, were located on the left-hand side of Arax River (in the territories on the left bank), and 2 Mahalettes, Surmalu and Darak‘end-P‘arch‘en were located on the right side of Arax River. Notably, when Erevan Khanate seceded from Persia by the Treaty of Turkmenchay in 1828 and was annexed to Russia, as territories of its khanate, it ‘transferred also the exclusive rights’ of Mahalettes of Sharur, Surmalu and Darak‘end-P‘arch‘en in particular (later, provinces, military okrugs) to Russia.
The following section of Article IV of the Treaty of Turkmenchay shows this situation: ‘Two great parties enter into an alliance that the borderline between two states shall start from the point of the border of Turkish possessions, which is the closest to the top of Lesser Ararat in a direct line. The borderline will extend over the top of the mountain. From there, it will run downhill towards the upper course of the K‘arasu River that originates from the southern side of Ararat. Therefore, the borderline will follow the direction of the course of the river until the point that lies before Sherur, where the river flows into Arax. From this point on, the borderline will run through Arax River to the fortress of Abbas-Abbad. Here, near the external fortifications of the same fortress, which are located on the right-hand bank of Arax, the borderline will create a circle with the radius of 3 ½ Russian vershoks wide (0.5 ałaǰ [a unit of Russian measurement]) and the exclusive rights to territory that lies inside this circle will fully cede to Russia, and counting from this day on, the territory shall be demarcated with the greatest accuracy in two months. Starting from the circle noted above, which is intersected by the bank of Araks River, the borderline will run forward once again through the river, reaching the shallow territory of Edobuluk‘.’
According to the Treaty of Moscow concluded on 16 March 1921, and the Treaty of Kars concluded on 13 October 1921, RSFSR donated the Mahalettes of Surmalu and Darak‘end-P‘arch‘eni (provinces) to Turkey. The RSFSR seceded the Mahalette (province) of Sharur from Armenian SSR, and alongside other provinces, as ‘an autonomous territory’, put under ‘the protection of Azerbaijan’, and all the total territory of Nakhijevan (including the province of Sharur), turned into ‘its integral administrative division.’
Question 7. According to the Treaty of Turkmenchay, not only Erevan and Nakhijevan but also a large part of other territories of Eastern Armenia were annexed to Russia. What would you say about it?
Answer 7. Erevan Khanate and Nakhijevan Khanate are only a part of Eastern Armenia, and other parts were annexed to Russia earlier than the Treaty of Turkmenchay. Thus, in 1801-1895, Lori P‘ambak, Mountain Khazaks, Zangezur were under the protection of Russia. These annexations came into force by the Treaty of Gulistan signed between Russia and Persia on 12 November 1813. But Persia, by the instigation of Western states, did not acknowledge the Treaty of Gulistan as the final regulation of the arguments for the Russo-Persia borders. Those issues reached a solution in the aftermath of the Russo-Persian war in 1826-1828 when the Russian army captured the fortress of Erevan, the center of Eastern Armenia on 1 October 1827, and Iran admitted its final defeat in the war. This is why Russia, by Article II of the Treaty of Turkmenchay, enforced Perisa to admit, ‘…The obligations of the Treaty of Gulistan come to end as a result of the war that broke out between two Great States and stopped successfully today, and [they] are obliged to replace the same terms and decisions, which should establish more and more peaceful and friendly relations between Russia and Persia, which are still pending.’
On 1 October 1827, Russia conquered the capital of Erevan of Eastern Armenia, and based on the Peace Treaty (Turkmenchay; 1828), Russia annexed Erevan, Nakhijevan, Ganja, Khanates of Karabakh, Lori-P‘ambak, Mountenous Kazakh, Shamshadin, Shoragyal (Eastern Shirak), and other territories to Eastern Armenia. On 1 October 1827, when the suzerainty policy was exercised to secede the capital of Erevan of Eastern Armenia from the power of Persia, it became the weighty ground to annex the total territory of Eastern Armenia to Russia. By the Peace Treaty (Turkmenchay; 1828), the non-Armenian territories of former Persian Transcaucasia went under the control of Russia.
Question 8. What would you say about the Armenian Oblast?
Answer 8. Russian Tsar I issued an edict on 26 March 1828, which promulgated: ‘According to the Treaty of Turkmenchay concluded with Persia, we command to call the Khanates of Erevan and Nakhijevan ‘Armenian Oblast ‘ herein and [it] shall be granted our title. The governing senate about this enhancement and governance policy of this oblast will receive a proper command on time.’
In 1828, Transcaucasia was divided into Administrative Units of 5 different statuses, of which, Administrative Unit 4 was oblast. Transcaucasia had 4 oblasts: Armenian, Imeretia, Mingrelia, and Guria. Administrative Unit 2 was distanciation. The territories of P‘ambak, Shamshadin, Shoragyal, Ghazakh (including Mountainous Kazakh), and Borch‘alu had a status of distanciation. Administrative Unit 3 was a province. Karabakh had the status of province.
The Armenian Oblast was formed from the former Khanates of Erevan and Nakhijevan and Ordubad District (formerly, Azajiran). Taking into account the administrative regime that was exercised in the past, the Russians divided the Armenian Oblast into 2 Administrative Units-province of Erevan and the province of Nakhijevan, and every province would be divided into okrugs (military okrugs)-Erevan, Sharur, Sardarabad, and Surmalu; the chiefs of okrugs were governors. The province of Nakhijevan had 2 okrugs (military okrugs)- Nakhijevan and Ordubad. The Mahalettes of former Gyogch‘a (Lake Sevan, Geghark‘unik‘), Darach‘ich‘ag (Tsaghkadzor), and Kěrkh-bulagh (Kotayk‘) were incorporated into Erevan Okrug of the province of Erevan of the Armenian Oblast. The Mahalettes of Sharur, Vedi-basar, Garni-basar, and Zangi-basar were under the jurisdiction of Sharur Okrug (military district) of the province of Erevan of the Armenian Oblast. Sardarapat Okrug (military okrug) of the province of Erevan of the Armenian Oblast was formed from Saot‘lini, T‘alinim, Seidl-Akhsakhli, Aparan, Karbi, and Sardarapat, which were former mahalettes.
Suramalu Okrug (military okrug) of the province of Erevan of the Armenian Oblast consisted of former Mahalettes of Surmalu and Darak‘end-P‘arch‘eni and the parts of Mahalettes of Garni-basar, and Vedi- basar, which lie on the right bank of Arax River. The statements noted above show that Okrugs of Sharur, Surmalu (military okrugs), and the Darak‘end-P‘arch‘en of former Mahalette of Surmalu Okrug (military okrug) were unchangingly transferred from the former Erevan Khanate to the administrative division of Erevan Okrug (military okrug) of the province of Erevan of the Armenian Oblast of the Caucasus Vassal of the Russian Empire.
In 1883, when the administrative state of the Armenian Oblast changed, Masis, Armenian royal crown, and Mother See of Holy Etchmiadzin alongside Russian Imperial eagle with two heads and crown were depicted on the coat of arms. The center of the Armenian Oblast was the city of Erevan. The Armenian Oblast maintained its status until 10 Apryl 1840 when the Imperial law enforced it to be eliminated, and the provinces of Erevan and Nakhijevan was annexed to the newly-formed Vira-Imeret‘ian Province, receiving statuses of individual provinces, and in 1846, they went under the jurisdiction of the province of Tiflis, where it retained its status until the province of Erevan was established on 9 June 1849. About it, the Russian Imperial law was put into effect on 1 January 1849.
Question 9. What sorts of information do you have about the province of Erevan?
Answer 9. The Armenian Oblast was established on 26 March 1828, which consists of the territories of former Khanates of Erevan and Nakhijevan. Practically, the name of the administrative-territorial unit of the former Khanate changed into Province, which means District. The khanates of Erevan and Nakhijevan of the Armenian Oblast began to be called the provinces of Erevan and Nakhijevan. But on 23 June, in 1833, the Province (Adminstrative Unit) was replaced with Provincial Administrative-territorial Unit, which, was successively divided into okrugs (military okrugs). According to the law that entered into effect on 23 June 1833, the province of Erevan of the Armenian Oblast was subdivided into 4 okrugs: Erevan, Sharur, Surmalu, and Sardarapat. The district of Erevan with such administrative units was installed into the jurisdiction of Vira-Imeret‘ian by the law enacted on 10 Apryl, 1840, and it was then re-installed into the province of Tiflis on 14 December 1846. This installation process was terminated in the province of Erevan by the law that was brought into effect on 1 January 1850. The territory of the district of Erevan corresponded to the regional territories of Abovyan, Masis, Artashat, and Ararat of further Armenian SSR.
While this annexation was carrying on, the district of Erevan maintained its status in the province of Erevan until 28 May 1918. When the government of Transcaucasia eliminated itself in 2 days, the Armenian National Council of Tiflis delivered the following promulgation, which was launched on 30 March: ‘With the solution of the political issue of the territorial integrity of Transcaucasia towards the new situation and by the declaration of the independence of Georgia and Azerbaijan, the Armenian National Council declares itself the governmental paramountcy over the Armenian provinces. Considering some weighty reasons, the Armenian National Council leaves the discretionary days to form Armenian National Government. The National Council will temporarily perform all the functions for the Government to take the political and governance lead of the administration of the Armenian provinces.’ Thus, since the first day of its creation on 28 May 1918, the RA declared that Russia exercised government paramountcy over all the Armenian provinces in Transcaucasia, including the provinces of Erevan and Nakhijevan, and will lead their governmental jurisdiction. The RA Government was relocated from Tiflis to Erevan, the capital of the RA, on 17 June 1918. It is to be noted that the district of the province of Erevan of Caucasus Vassal of the Russian Empire shall not be confused with the district of Erevan of Armenian SSR or further Armenia.
Question 10. Would you tell a few words about Armenia or Armenian SSR?
Answer 10. The Administrative Unit system was established by the decision of the Government of Armenian SSR that was made on 20 July 1921. Based on it, the province of Erevan of Armenian SSR consisted of provinces of Akhta (Abovyan), Kotayk‘, Garni, Ghamarlu, Vedi, other administrative units, and the city of Erevan that was located outside. The province of Erevan of Armenian SSR covered 4425.5 sq km territory and had 178652 people, while the individual enumeration of the people of Erevan showed 64613 people. The Central Executive Committee of Armenian SSR made the decision to stop applying the terms, District or Administrative Unit that should be replaced with the term Administrative District. On 9 September 1923, the Province, as an administrative-territorial unit, was regarded a tailpiece and was eliminated, and Armenian SSR was immediately divided into administrative districts (raions). The province of Erevan was eliminated on 9 September 1929.
Thus, the province of Erevan of Armenian SSR, which assumed its status on 30 December, maintained the existing authority 1922 from 20 July 1921 until 9 September 1929 (about 8 years).
Question 11. What territories were installed into the Sharur Okrug of the province of Erevan in the Caucasus Vassal of the Russian Empire?
Answer 11. The Sharur Okrug of the district of Erevan of the province of Erevan of Caucasus Vassal of the former Russian Empire incorporated:
- Mahalette of Sharur
- Mahalette of Vedi-basar
- Mahalette of Garni-basar and Mahalette of Zangi-basar
The RA that was established on 28 May 1928 held itself accountable for the political and administrative governance policy of those Mahalettes, noted above.
Question 12. What territories were installed in Surmalu Okrug of the district of Erevan of the province of Erevan of Caucasus Vassal of the former Russian Empire?
Answer 12. The Mahalette of Surmalu, the total territories of the Mahalette of Dark‘end-Pakhch‘eni, and the part of the Mahalette of Garni-basar that lied at the right hand of Arax River, and the Mahalette of Vedi-basar that was located on the right bank of Arax River were installed in the Surmalu Okrug of the district of Erevan of the province of Erevan of Caucasus Vassal of the former Russian Empire. The Republic of Armenia that was established on 28 May 1918 took the lead of political and administrative governance of all those Armenian territories.
Question 13. What was, in fact, the province of Erevan of the Caucasus Vassal of the former Russian Empire?
Answer 13. The Tsar issued the edict on 9 June 9, 1849, about the creation of the province of Erevan of the Caucasus Vassal. The edict has had the force of law on 1 January 1850. The center of the province was Erevan. The province of Erevan incorporated all the territories of Erevan Khanate and Nakhijevan Khanate, i.e. provinces of the Armenian Oblast and province of Aleksandrapol. The military okrug of Akhalk‘alak‘ seceded from the territories mentioned above and was annexed to the province of Tiflis. In 1862, Lori, which encompassed most of the parts of Lori-P‘ambak to the north, seceded from the province of Aleksandrapol and was annexed to Tiflis.
Thus, the province of Erevan that was newly established still included Erevan, Aleksandrapol, New Bayazet, Nakhijevan, Ordubad in the process of the creation of the province of Erevan. In 1867, the province of Ordubad, however, was eliminated, and its territory was annexed to the province of Nakhijevan. The new province of Etchmiadzin is formed by the enforcement of the law in 1867. Based on the amendments of the same law of 1867, the province of Erevan should include 5 provinces-Erevan, Aleksandrapol, Etchmiadzin, Nakhijevan, and New Bayazet. In 1847, the province of Erevan had a new internal delimitation of territories. Sharur-Daragyaz was established in the territory of a part of the provinces of Erevan and Nakhijevan, and the province of Surmalu is formed based on the Surmalu military okrug of the province of Etchmiadzin. The province of Surmalu lied between the Arax River and Armenian Mountain Chains.
In 1874, the province of Erevan of Caucasus Vassal of the Russian Empire had the following 7 provinces vested by the law:
- Province of Erevan
- Province of Aleksandrapol
- Province of Etchmiadzin
- Province of Nakhijevan
- Province of New Bayazet
- Province of Sharur-Daralagyaz
- Province of Surmalu
Territorially, the province of Erevan, from the very beginning to the end, did not have external territorial delimitation; its internal delimitation changed alone. The province, including the mirror of Lake Sevan, covered 27830 sq km territories. The provinces noted above were divided into military districts (okrugs), which, in general, had an administrative system identical to the mahalettes of the period of Persian Rule. The province of Erevan had 452000 people in 1871, 547693 people in 1873-1876, 670405 people in 1886, 804757 people in 1897, 916496 people in 1902. By the way, on 2 December 1920, according to Article III that was concluded between RSFSR and Republic of Armenia at Erevan: ‘The Soviet Government of Russia acknowledges that the province of Erevan with all its provinces, inarguably, is going under the jurisdiction of ASSR… ‘ The very thesis in the section ‘…the province of Erevan with all its provinces…’ precisely denotes all 7 provinces, Erevan, Aleksandrapol, Etchmiadzin, Nakhijevan. New Bayazet, Sharur-Daralagyaz, and Surmalu of the province of Erevan of the Caucasus Vassal of the Russian Empire, which we indicated above.
Question 14. What would you say about Erevan as the cultural capital of Armenian SSR?
Answer 14. According to the Treaty of Erevan concluded between RSFSR and the RA on 2 December 1920, RSFSR acknowledged that ASSR, which was then defined by the exonym, Armenian SSR, had control over the province of Erevan with its capital of Erevan. In 1921, 22 new schools were established at once in Erevan. In the 1930s, the number of students and teachers rapidly grew, the schools aimed to cater to students with modern stuff, and school books. New edifices were designed for education. In the academic year 1959-1960 already, Erevan had 129 public schools, where 79166 students were enrolled, and it had 4540 teachers. In the academic year 1975-1976, Erevan had 191 schools. Of them, 168 schools were secondary, ten schools were eight-graded, 13 schools were of other types. The schools housed 163235 students. The University of Erevan was re-open in December of 1920, which was called State University in 1923. The Veterinary Hospital was established in 1928, and the Research Institute for Livestock Breeding was founded in 1929. These institutes were merged in 1932 to establish the Institute of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary of Sciences at Erevan. And the individual National Polytechnic University of Armenia (1930), Yerevan State Medical University (1930), Armenian National Agricultural Academy (1930), Armenian State Pedagogical University after Khachatur Abovyan were institutionalized based on the University of Erevan. After the Great Patriotic War, Fine Art and Theatre Institute, Armenian State Institute of Physical Culture and Sport, Institute of Russian and Foreign Languages, were established. The National Institute of Economic and Social Research was based on the Economic Faculty of University in 1975. Apart from the institutes noted above, the branches of 2 institutes of Moscow used to function in Erevan. In 1988, Erevan had 11 Higher Educational Institutes which housed more than 55000 students. Those institutions used to prepare specialists of more than 350 professions for the country, including neutral physics, cybernetics, physical chemistry, electrical and electrical engineering, IT programming. In November of 1943, the Science Academy of ASSR was established, which merged the Armenian branch of the Science Academy of ASSR. Many research institutes, laboratories, departments, councils, and other scientific units were institutionalized. Many prominent scientists laid the foundation of pedagogy and science in the educational centers of Erevan and ASSR; among them are H. Mamandyan, Leo, M. Abeghyan, H. Acharyan, G. Ghambaryan, A. Terteryan, physicians, V. Artsruni, H. K‘ech‘ek, chemists, L. Rotinyan, S. Ghambaryan, H. Orbeli, V. Hambardzumyan, who was elected the chairman of the Academy Science of ASSR in 1947, as well as A. Gharibyan, and many other individuals. The scientists of ASSR greatly contributed to the advancement of some branches of local science and global science. Among them are mathematics, mechanics, physics, linguistics, physics galaxy, chemistry, geology, biology, archeology, historiography, literary criticism. The Armenian people inherited the wealthy legacy of literature and art of ancient Armenia. Erevan became an outstanding center of Armenian literature. Eghishe Ch‘arents‘, Aksel Bakunts‘, Derenik Demirchyan, Step‘an Zoryan, Vahan T‘ot‘vents‘, Nairi Zaryan, Gurgen Mahari, Gegham Saryan, Vagharshak Norents‘, Soghomon Taronts‘i, Hrach‘ya K‘och‘ar, Hovhannes Shiraz, Vakhtang Ananyan, Paruyr Sevak, Gevorg Emin, Hamo Sahyan, Silva Kaputikyan, Aghasi Ayvazyan, Vahagn Davt‘yan, and many other authors lived and worked here.
The ancient roots of the Armenian theatre are traceable to the 1st century BC, during the reign of Tigran II the Great (140-55 BC) and Artavazd II (53-34 BC). The Armenian theatre was most flourished in Erevan which was then based on the best schools of the Armenian theatre of Constantinople, Moscow, Tiflis. In 1821, in Erevan, the Gabriel Sundukyan State Dramatic Theatre was established, which was then officially named Academic Theatre. Its stage served for famous actors to perform brilliantly in different periods. Among the actors are M. Beroyan, H. Chěměshkyan, I. Alikhanyan, G. Avetyan, M. Manvelyan, H. Abelyan, A. Oskanyan, H. Hakobyan (her theatrical pseudonym is Hasmik), H. Nersisyan, V. Vagharshyan, V. Papazyan, A. Avetyan, H. Xach‘anyan, G. Јanibekyan, Kh. Abrahamyan, S. Sargsyan, and many other performers. In 1932, Spendaryan’s Almast was premiered at the Opera and Ballet State Theatre after Al. Spendarian (later officially named Academic Theatre), which was newly open in 1932. The theatrical repertoire included Anush and Davit Bek by A. Tigranyan, Evgeni Onegin and Swan Lake by P. Chaykavosky, Rigoletto and Aida by G. Verdi, Foust by Ch. Goanod, Karmen by G. Bize, Gayane and Spartak by A. Xach‘atryan, Arshak Ekrord (Arshak II) by T. Ch‘ukhajyan and many other operas and ballets. The stage of this theatre was a place for H. Danielyan, P. Lisitsyan, Sh. Talyan, S. Sazandaryan, G. Gasparyan, N. Hovhannisyan, and others to perform. The world-famous conductor Hovahnnes Chekijian has been regularly performing here for a few decades. Besides, Dramatic Theatre after H. Ghaplanyan, State Musical Comedy Theatre after H. Paronyan, Russian Drama Theatre after K. Stanislavsky, Theatre for Young Audience, State Puppet Theatre after H. T‘umanyan, and other types of theatres have been still open to visitors in Erevan. The Armenian musical art is based on the genius works of M. Ekmalyan, Komitas, Kara-Murza, T. Ch‘ukhajyan. A. Spendiaryan, A. Tigranyan, A. Ter-Ghevondyan, and other artists, who developed wealthy traditions of musical art. The Music Studio was established in 1921. The State Music Conservatory after Komitas, the Symphonic Orchestra, as well as Hayhamerg International Centre were founded in 1923. The Composers Union of Armenia was established in 1923. Furthermore, prominent musicians, A. Sat‘yan, M. Mirzoyan, K. Zak‘aryan, A. Ayvazyan, A. Khach‘atryan, A. Babajyan, E. Mirzoyan, E. Hovhannisyan, G. Eghiazaryan, and other figures enriched Armenian music. The symphonic orchestra, many singing, and dance groups, folk musical instrument music bands, performed Armenian music worldwide that has brought fame to Armenia. Symphonic music bands of Opera and Ballet Theatre after Al. Spendarian, the symphonic orchestras of the Hayhamerg, State Committee of Radio and TV, famous Academic National Chamber Choir of Armenia that was conducted by celebrated Hovhannes Chekijian, Folk Instruments National Ensemble after Aram Merangulyan, Folk Song and Dance National Ensemble which was headed by a veteran and master of choreography, T‘at‘ul Alt‘unyan, State Estrada Musical Band, National Dance Ensemble which was chaired by Artistic Director, Vanush Khanamiryan enjoyed a good reputation.
In 1924, in Erevan, the movie studio, Hayfilm (Armenian Movie) after Hamo Beknazaryan was founded. It produced many silent films, Namus, Xaz P‘ush, Ch‘ar Ogi (Evil Spirit), Gik‘or. The first Armenian sound film, Pepo was produced in 1935, which had many fans in all RSFSR. Here, Patvi Hamar (For Honour), Arajin Siro Ergě (The First Love Song), Barev, Es em (Hello, It is Me), Menk‘ enk‘, Mer Sarerě (We, and Our Mountains), Sirtě Ergum ē (The Heart is Singing), and other art films, documental, educational, animation movies were then produced. The new generations inherited ancient miniature schools of scriptoria of different periods of Eastern Armenia and Western Armenia and the Cilician Kingdom of Armenia. Among the Cilician illustrators are distinguished T‘oros Řoslin (13th century), Sargis Pits‘ak (13th-14th centuries), and the painters, the Hovnat‘yans, and other artists. The Artists Association of Painting and Drawing was created in 1929. The Artists Association of Armenia was built in 1932. Great figures of Armenian painting, M. Saryan, S. Aghajanyan, P‘. T‘erlemezyan, H. Kojoyan, G. Gyurjyan, E. K‘och‘ar, A. Sarsgyan, E. Isabekyan, G. Khanjyan, Minas Avetisyan, H. Zardaryan, H. Sharamberyan, H. Hakobyan, S. Baghdasaryan, and many others lived and created many art works in Erevan.
Erevan, which had a million citizens, had a few hundred school libraries and reading halls, including the library of the Academy Sciences of ASSR, the scientific-medical library of Ministry of Healthcare, the library of the state university, the public library (later, it changed its status into national) of A. F. Myasnikyan that was established in 1921. The book fund amount of the library reached a few million. Erevan has consistently been a city of architects and architecture until our days. In 1924, the government passed the project Building Site Plan of Erevan that was initiated by a famous architect, A. I. T‘amanyan. The project was based on the Armenian and world architectural experience, advanced principles, the natural condition determination of the area of the city, facility, and utility lines.
In 1924, the population of Erevan, according to the Site Plan noted above, would reach 150000 people. T‘amanyan’s design and construction project was used to build many unique edifices; among them are the Polytechnique Institute and Livestock Breeding and Veterinary Hospital Institute, central square, Opera and Ballet House, the three or four-story buildings on the Streets of Nalbandyan, T‘umanyan, Amiryan, Pushkin, and other edifices. However, the population of Erevan in 10 years reached 150000 people.
In 1935, the Government proposed T‘amanyan create a development project of the second main Site Plan of Erevan. He started to process the project but passed away in 1936. The main Site Plan of Mets Erevan (Big Erevan) was initiated and passed by the Government in 1939, but it was implemented after the Second World War. Nevertheless, the project had insufficient means to use for Erevan. Therefore, N. A. Zargaryan headed the third project, which was passed by the Government and was put into practice in February of 1951. The third Site Plan was designed for 450.0000 people and should have been implemented in the upcoming 15 years, in 1951-1965. Nevertheless, in 1959 already, the population of Erevan reached 510.000 people, which was the reason for the Government to initiate a new fourth Site Plan, Mets Erevan. The project was passed in 1969. In 1957, Erevan residential fund size encompassed 9.260.300 sq. m. In 1974-1975 alone, the residential area was built that covered 534.900 sq. m. in Erevan. Numerous buildings of Erevan are architectural monuments built from rosish tuff, local red and black tuff, and basalt by great Armenian architects. Of those buildings are central (now Republic) Square, central Trading Market (P‘ak Shuka), bridge Haght‘anak (Victory), Academy Sciences built from tuff, Matendaran built from basalt, Yerevan State University, Sundukyan State Academic Theatre, and other hundreds of buildings, such as cinema houses, airports, sports complexes, and musical complexes. The population of Erevan, which was increasingly flourishing in 1988 already, grew beyond 1.200.000 people, becoming the most outstanding home of the Armenian culture in the world.
Erevan, the capital of Armenia, that was declared independent on 21 September 1921, leaning upon the wealthy legacy of the culture of Armenia, which dates back to old centuries, and facing many challenges and obstacles, has become an untiring advocate of the Armenian culture, developing it to the demands of the country and modern society.
 S. T. Eremyan, Armenia, According to the World Atlas [Arm. orig., Hayastaně ěst ashxarhats‘oyts‘i], Yerevan, AS ASSR Press, 1963, pp. 111; 119; 50, and 60; T. Kh. Hakobyan, Contour Lines of Historical Geography of Armenia [Arm. orig., Urvagtser Hayastani patmakan ashxaragrut‘yan] (hereafter, Contour Lines], YSU Press, 1960, pp. 154-155; V. Hakobyan, Dictionary of Toponyms of Armenian and Adjacent Territories [Arm. orig., Hayastani ew harakits‘ shrjanneri teghanunneri bararan] (hereafter, Dictionary of Toponyms), vol. 2, p. 215 and 229.
 Strabo, Geography 9, 14. 3; 4; 6, and 13; Leo, History, vol.1, p. 163.
 The translation of the original is ‘it is seen.’
 Leo, History, vol. 1, p. 166; М.Никольский, “Клинообразные надписи Закавказья” (“Материалы по архологии Кавказа”), вып. V, Москва, 1896г., с. 97.
 Eremyan, ibid., pp. 60, 50.
 Leo, History of Armenia (hereafter, History), vol.1, p. 186.
 Leo, History, vol. 1, p. 187; М.Никольский, ibid., p. 88.
 Eremyan, ibid., p. 50.
 Г. А. Меликишвили, “Древневосточные материалы по истории народов Закавказья. I, Наири-Урарту” (hereafter, ДМИНЗ), изд. АН Груз. ССР, Тбилиси, 1954г., с. 217 (Урартские клинообразные Надписи”, hereafter, УКН, 127, II, 25-50=частично: УКН, 128, А2); Г.А.Меликишвили, “Урартские клинообразные надписи” (hereafter, УКН, 127, II, 25-50=частично: УКН, 128, А2).
 Г.А.Меликишвили, “УКН”, с. 217 (УКН, 128, А2); R. A. Ishkhanyan, The Question of the Origin of the Armenian People and the Ancient History [Arm. org., Hay zhoghovrdi tsagman u hnaguyn patmut‘yan harcer], Erevan, 1988, pp. 90-91; T. Gh. Sahakyan, The Political and Spiritual Cultural Fate of the Gugark-Goderdz Territories of Armenia Major from the Origin until the Year 1980 [Arm. org., Mets Hayastani Gugark-goderdzakan taratsashrjani k‘aghak‘akan u hogevor-mshakut‘ayin chakatagirě i skzbanē minchew 1980-akan t‘vakannerě] (hereafter, The Political), Erevan, 2004, p. 32.
 Г.А.Меликишвили, “УКН”, д. 168-270 (УКН-145, 146, 147, 147а, 147б; Armenian Soviet Encyclopedia (Arm. org., Haykakan sovetakan hanragitaran], vol. 4, Erevan, p. 90; Sahakyan, The Political, p. 32; Hakobyan, Dictionary of Toponyms, vol. 2, pp. 225 and 215.
 Hakobyan, Contour Lines, pp. 154-155; Hakobyan, Dictionary of Toponyms, pp. 215 and 229.
 Strabo, Geography 9. 14. 3; 4; 6, and 13.
 Leo, History, vol. 4, pp. 237-238; Bishop Mesrop. ‘The Water Irrigation’ [Arm. org., Mesrop episkopos], Ararat Magazine, 1912, pp. 238-239.
 Hakobyan, Contour Lines, vol. 2, p. 229;
 Ibid., pp. 123-126; 130-131; 136-137; 140-143; 148-149, and 154; Hakobyan, Dictionary of Toponyms, vol. 1, 265-272; 467; 493-494; 532; vol. 2, 145-147; 249-250; 350-352; see particularly p. 146.
 Miscellany of Armenian Documents; Epistles of Medieval Armenian Catholicoses [Arm. org., Girk tghtoc; matenagrutiwn nakhneac], T. Rotineats‘ and M. Sharadzev Press, Tiflis, 1901, pp. 151-152; H. N. Akinean, Vrt‘anes the Grammarian and His Studies [Arm. org., Vrtanes Kertogh and iwr erkasirutiwnnerě], Handes Amsorya, 1910, p. 8; Leo, History, vol. 2, Book 1, Erevan, 1967, pp. 228, and 231, Hakobyan, Dictionary of Toponyms, vol. 2, p. 146.
 Ibid., p. 216.
 Ibid.; Hakobyan, Dictionary of Toponyms, pp. 155; 331 and 343.
 Архепископ Магакия Орманян, “Армянская Церковь” (отв. ред. С.Аревшатян), изд. “Анкюнакар”, Ереван, 2016г., с. 77.
 Hakobyan, Contour Lines, pp. 350-352.
 Leo, History 3.1. 55-56, notes 12 (15 479-780); Adam Olearus, les Voyages en Moscovie, Tartarie et Perse, Amsterdam, 1727, t. I, p. 522; T. Kh. Hakobyan, History of Erevan of 1500-1800 [Arm. org., Erevani patmutyun-1500-1800], Erevan, 1971, p. 140.
 Leo, History 3. 1. 55, note 12, pp. 479-480.
 Hakobyan, Contour Lines, p. 360;
 Leo, History 3.2.19.
 Hakobyan, Contour Lines, pp. 351-352;
 Ibid., pp. 354-356; И.Шопен, “Исторический памятник состояния Армянской области в Эпоху её присоединения к Российской империи”, СПб, 1852г.
 Hakobyan, Dictionary of Toponyms, vol. 2, p. 55;
 Ibid., p. 206.
 Ibid., vol.1, p. 183.
 Ibid., vol. 2, p. 267.
 Ibid., vol. 2, p. 56; Hakobyan, Contour Lines, p. 56.
 Hakobyan, Dictionary of Toponyms, vol. 1, p. 885;
 И. Шопен, ibid. (fully); Hakobyan, Dictionary of Toponyms, pp. 354-355.
 Hakobyan, Dictionary of Toponyms, p. 387.
 Ibid., pp. 387-390; “Советско-иранские отношения в договорах, конвенциях и соглашениях” (hereafter, СИОДКС), МИД СССР, М.1946г., с. 29-35; Jon Kirakosyan, Armenia in the Treaties of International Diplomacy and Soviet Foreign Policy in 1828-1923 [Arm. orig., Hayastaně mijazgayin divanagitut‘yan ew sovetakan artak‘in k‘aghak‘anut‘yan p‘astat‘ght‘erum, 1828-1923], (hereafter, Armenia in the Treaties], Erevan, 1972, pp. 65-72; see particluraly p. 66.
 Документы внешней политики СССР (hereafter, ДВП СССР), т. 3, 1959г., Москва, с. 597-604; Kirakosyan, Armenia in the Treaties, pp. 499-507.
 ДВП СССР, т. 4, 1960г., с. 420-429; Kirakosyan, Armenia in the Treaties, pp. 517-527.
 Справка “Нахичеванская АССР в Советско-турецких договорах”, подготовленная МИД СССР для ЦК КПСС 31 мая 1966г., за № 1329.
 Leo, History, vol. 4, pp. 184-194; 382-383; V. E. Khojabekyan, Reproduction and Displacement of the Armenian Population in the 19th-20th centuries and on the Threshold of the 21st century, Erevan, 2002, p. 25; АКАК, Тифлис, т. II, 1866г., № 1168, № 1172; Дубровин Н.Ф., “Три года из истории войны и владычества русских на Кавказе (1806, 1807, 1808гг.), СПб, 1868г., т. IV, с. 127; History of the Armenian People [Hay zhoghovrdi patmut‘yun], vol. 5, Erevan, 1974, p. 15; АКАК, т. II, с. 705; Leo, History, vol. 4, pp. 248-254; 382, and 398.
 СИОДКС, с. 29-35; Kirakosyan, Armenia in the Treaties, pp. 65-72; see particularly, pp. 15 and 66.
 Gabriel Lazean, Armenia and Armenian Genocide Trials [Arm. org., Hayastan and Hay Datě], Erevan, 1991, p. 5; Hakobyan, Contour Lines, pp. 391-392.
 С. Эсадзе, “Историческая записка об управлении Кавказом”, т. I, Тифлис, 1907г., с. 65; Hakobyan, Contour Lines, p. 394.
 Hakobyan, Contour Lines, pp. 390-398.
 Hakobyan, Dictionary of Toponyms, vol. 2, p. 230; Hakobyan, Contour Lines, pp. 387-400; see particularly pp. 393, 396-400.
 S. Vracyan, Republic of Armenia [Arm. org., Hayastani Hanrapetutyun] (hereafter, RA), Erevan, 1998, p. 161; Richard G. Hovhannisian, Republic of Armenia [Arm. org., Hayastani Hanrapetutyun] (hereafter, RA), vol. 1, Erevan, 2005, pp. 34-35; Г.А. Борян, “Армения, международная дипломатия и СССР, т. 1, Москва – Ленинград, 1928г.
 Аркомед С.Т., “Материалы по истории отподания Закавказья от России”, 1931г., с. 100; A. Eseyan, International Juridical Status of Armenia in 1920-1922 [Arm. org., Hayastani mijazgayin iravakan drutyuně], Erevan, 1969, p. 30; Sahakyan, Discreditable Treaties [Arm. orig., Ts‘avali paymanagrer] (hereafter, Discreditable], Erevan, 2007, pp. 85; Sahakyan, The Nurturing Roots of the Russian-Turkey-Azerbaijan Aggression Against Armenia in 1920 [Arm. org., Hayastani dem 1920 katarvats rus-turk-adrbejanakan zinvats agresiayi snucogh armatnerě] (hereafter, The Nurturing Roots), Erevan, 2016, pp. 270-272.
 Sargsyan, Dictionary of Toponyms, vol. 2, p. 230.
 Hakobyan, Contour Lines, p. 395;
 Vracyan, RA, p. 161.
 Hakobyan, Contour Lines, p. 395.
 Hakobyan, Contour Lines, pp. 398-400; Hakobyan, Dictionary of Toponyms, vol. 2, p. 231.
 Vracyan, RA, pp. 501-503; 534-535; L. Khurshudyan, The Division of Armenia of 1920 [Arm. org., Hayastani bazhanunut‘yuně 1920 t.], Erevan, 2020, pp. 304-305; H. Ter-Hakobyan, The Last Disaster of Armenia [Arm. org., Hayastani verjin aghetě]. Constantinople, 1921, pp. 124-125; Sahakyan, Discretionary, pp. 343-347.
 Sahakyan, The Nurturing Roots (the complete material is retrieved from p. 584).