Written in the early 1990s, after Artsakh (Mountainous Karabagh) declared its independence and the first Artsakh war was taking place, this book has not lost its interest. It examines the history of Artsakh and assesses the mass of archaeological material and documentary evidence supporting the conflicting Azeri and Armenian claims. The authors follow the populations of the area from antiquity through periods of Mongol, Turkmen, and Persian occupation, on to the entry of Turkey and Russia onto the scene, the period of Soviet rule and, finally, the war with Azerbaijan. The book highlights the Armenian culture of Artsakh, traces its demographic evolution and situates the current hostilities in terms of the interests of neighboring Russia, Iran, and Turkey. It helps understand why Armenians feel so strongly that Artsakh is theirs and is worth dying for.